Persian Rugs22 May 2018
Iranian rugs known as top level of carpet art. History of Iranian rugs date back to 2500 years ago. Iranians brought out the best instances of creativity and skills. Art of carpet knotting, transferred from father to son and became a family tradition in Iran.
Fame of the Iranian rugs, travelled around the world became an outstanding asset. In all industrial and developed countries, be possessed of Iranian rug means that the owners are wealthy and have artistic souls. Art of hand knotted rug improved and became magnificent throughout the years and brought glorious fame and success for its creators.
Hand knotted rugs has three different type in terms of materials; wool, silk and wool-silk mixture. Approximate ninety percent of an Iranian rug, made of wool.
İranian carpets, made of wool and silk , also has Persian and Turkish knot technique. Not to mention the fact that Iranian carpets are high quality carpets that coloured by vegetable dye.
Iranian rug known as the Persian Rug. Most of them and the best of them loomed by Turkic people like Azerbaijani, Turkoman, Qashqai.
Persian rug has a different technique then the rugs loomed in Turkey. Persian knot more loose and weaker in the sense of quality and durability then Turkish knot.
Art of hand knotted carpet in İran, start with Seljuks. Oldest exponent of Persian rugs occurred at miniatures in 14th and 15th centuries. After 16th century Persian rug acquire a characteristic. In that period of time carpets, loomed for royals or loomed with royals’ consent. As from 19th century when fine trade organisations were constituted, İran became top carpet exporter in the world.
The carpet known as the oldest Persian rug, came in sight, in an area named as Pazyryk at skirts of Altai Mountains. The rug’s patterns contains ribbon ornaments in the middle, in one border it carries deer symbols, in the other border there are Persian cavalier figures. Studies showed that Pazyryk carpet belongs to 383-200 BC.
Pazyrk carpet preserved perfectly up to this day, by reason of the fact that it was frozen. The carpet found as an ice ball. When it was thawed , other then couples of ripped zone and a missing spot, it was in well condition and still flexible. After the carpet came to surface, it was washed with special technics, dried and sprayed with a special mixture that contained alcohol, gelatine and glycerine. Pazyrk carpet exhibiting in St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum since 1950.
First documented proof for carpet’s existence date back to Sasanians, who lived in Iran at 224-641 A.D. Heraclius brought a large variety of carpet to capital of Sasanians after Ktesiphon was concerned. They include a famous carpet named as “Spring Time of Khosro”. This famous 27 square metre rug put it’s stamp on history as the most precious carpet. Nevertheless Arabs, tore this precious carpet apart and sold every piece of them individually.
Art of Persian rug reached a peak in 16th century with Safavids Nearly 1500 quintessence of this era maintain at special collections of several museums all over the world. Throughout reign of Shah Abbas blow was struck in trade and art. When Shah Abbas supported relations with Europe, it effected mercantilization assertively. Apart from this constituted a royal workshop for carpet looming. In this workshop he encourage talented crafters for create spectacular carpets. Numerous specialist believes that these rugs represent the top level of carpet art.
Moreover Shah Abbas, brought on utilization gold and silver thread. One of the carpets that loomed with this method used in a coronation ceremony and now it’ preserved at Rosenburg Castle in Copenhagen. This splendid piece has velvet surface pile and a bright golden lower base. Of course this special carpets were knotted for royalty and aristocracy.
Carpets waved in İran have a special place for Turkish carpet art. Because they have rich variety of rugs and every one of them is piece of art. Persian rugs and Turkish rugs have always been in an interaction in terms of patterns, colours and knot techniques.
Persian rug earn a persistent fame, more than national and ethnic industries all other countries have. This fame became notorious around the world, even eastern world known as the place legends were born. Carpets considered as the most important decorative objects and a source of pride of the international museums. And these carpets are incomparable Persian crafter’s work of art.
These artefacts waved with such a great patience and caution by calloused and skilled fingers. And these art of carpet that hewed out, will continue to be a source of pride for the Persian people in the future.
Carpets that have maximum 35 knots per square centimetre constitute the great part of the annual carpet production. And these carpets attract a great deal of attention domestically and from abroad.
Mercantile and art regain their importance in last quarter of 19th century. Carpets of merchants from Tabriz, exported to Europe by way of Istanbul and courtesy of this action, carpet weaving developed once again.
In the end of 19th century, some companies from Europe and America came this area to set up factories and started carpet producing for the western markets. In the present carpet looming is the most extensive handcraft in Iran.
Persian rugs are world wide known for their wide colour range, outstanding artistic patterns and quality designs. Persian rugs are accepted as the most valuable asset in the most important buildings, museums and mansions.
Persian carpet waving still continue in the present. All world keep track and evaluate them.